GMO AND
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY ANALYSES

The Laemmegroup GMO and Molecular Biology Laboratory carries out analyses in Real Time PCR with the aim of verifying that raw materials and end products for human and animal use conform to regulations in force.
/ Qualitative and Quantitative Research of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO):
/ Qualitative analysis for GMO screening to detect the presence of genetically modified organisms in foodstuffs, animal feed and plants (soy, corn, rice, colza, cotton, beets, apples, beans, lupin, papaya, potatoes, wheat).

/ Quantitative analysis to research transgenic events of soy and corn.
/ Genetic analysis of the mutation of the cattle myostatin gene to distinguish the Piedmont breed from the other breeds. Myostatin is a protein that controls the development of muscle mass in the foetus and while growing. In the cattle breeds that present the double-muscled phenomenon, there is a specific mutation that renders this protein weak making it so the muscles grown more than usual. The genetic mutation of the Piedmont breed is different to that of the other double-muscled breeds and this makes it possible to distinguish it through DNA analysis. The Laemmegroup Molecular Biology Laboratory is able to carry out analyses in Real Time PCR of the G>A mutation in position 938 of the myostatin gene on a DNA sample extracted from bovine meat.
/ Genetic analysis of bovine beta casein gene mutation to discern conditions of homozygosis or heterozigosis from a single carrier. About 25% of milk proteins are constituted by whey protein and non-protein nitrogenous constituents, while the remainder is casein, the protein involved in the production of cheese. Beta casein represents approximately 36% of the overall amount of casein. Of the 13 variants of beta casein, the most common are A1 and A2, whose alleles are co-dominant. On a genetic level, the difference between the two variants is based on the difference of a single nucleotide, which is equivalent to the C>A mutation in position 473 of the bovine beta casein gene. The Laemmegroup Microbiology Laboratory is able to carry out analyses in Real Time PCR on the C>A mutation, thus discerning the bovine on the basis of the mutant A1A1 homozygous, A1A2 heterozygous and non-mutant A2A2 homozygous genotypes.
/ Identification of animal origin DNA in foodstuffs and cheese
/ Identification of pathogenic micro-organisms: listeria monocytogenes / salmonella spp. / Shiga Toxin producing Escherichia Coli (STEC)
/ Qualitative determiners through Real Time PCR of some allergens like soy, celery and pistachio. Other allergens are researched in the Chemical Laboratory through the ELISA method. .
With regards preventive measures adopted in Italy for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) with particular attention to the animal feed industry, since 1994 the Ministry has prohibited administering proteins deriving from mammalian tissues in the diet of grazers. To monitor this prohibition, a control system was put in place by the competent authorities to intervene in every stage of the supply chain.